||Specialized proteins of the immune system that
initiate the body's defense response
||Specific antibodies could be developed to fight
cancer, HIV-AIDS, hepatitis, malaria, dental caries, and other
||Compounds that stimulate the production of antibodies
that protect against disease
||Plant-made vaccines are currently under development
for protection against cholera, diarrhea (Norwalk virus), and
||Proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions
||Enzymes could be used both to treat and to diagnose
disease. For example, lipase is an enzyme that breaks down dietary
fats and is used to treat the symptoms of cystic fibrosis and
||Chemical messengers active at low concentrations
and produced in specialized cells
||Insulin is produced in the pancreas and helps
regulate sugar metabolism. Diabetics with insulin deficiencies
must replace it via shots or pumps.
||Proteins that provide structural support to cells
||Collagen is a structural protein found in animal
connective tissues and used in cosmetics.
||A wide variety of proteins
||The anti-infection agents interferon and lactoferrin,
and aprotinin (to control blood loss during surgery) have been
engineered in plants.